First Draft Problems and How to Solve Them


All first drafts have problems.  But all first drafts can also be polished into gems with a little (or a lot) of rewriting. Here are some of the most common first draft problems and how you can solve them.

Info Dumps Through Dialog

This is when a huge amount of the plot or back story is conveyed through dialog.  Rather than showing the reader the conflict and allowing them to gradually learn about the history of your character and universe, you simply stuff everything necessary into a verbal info dump.

“I don’t understand,” Maggie said.

“Let me explain it to you,” the wizard said. “It all started twenty years ago when your great, great grandfather wanted to rule the kingdom…[100 words later]…the king didn’t want that to happen so he sent away the man servant and told him to never return, but he secretly…[250 words later]…and then you were born and raised by mountain trolls…[200 words later]… so now you must regain the glory of our kingdom by fighting the dragon of the north.”

Solution: Find ways to trickle this information throughout the book.  Think critically about what your reader needs to know in any given moment. So long as they get the information before it becomes relevant, you’re good, so space it out.  Also, think critically about whether the information is needed at all. Condense the story down to its bare essentials.

Info Dumps of the Past

This happens when the novel is packed with things that happened before the start of the story. You may be constantly backtracking to explain things. It gives the reader a sort of whiplash as they are ping-ponged from the current events to the past and back again.

Angela looked at me in that crappy way of hers, eyes bugging out of her head.  I hate that girl.  Last summer when I went out with Max, but he was still in love with Abby, who really wanted to be with Kristy, but she was totally hung up on Brad…[200 words later] and then she totally didn’t even show up to my birthday party and she had the nerve to ask me to…[450 words later] …so that’s why I don’t like Angela.

Solution: Follow the advice for info dumps through dialog and also consider the possibility that you are starting your story too late.  Sometimes info dumps about the past can be eliminated by adding a well-structured first chapter that shows the reader what they will need to know to understand the rest of the story. For more help: How to Dump Info Without Info Dumping.


Over Explaining

In large part, this has to do with not trusting your reader to “get it” without your (extensive) help. The result is that the same thing is explained over and over and over again. This is often the cause of super long word counts.

He was sad. His eyes welled with tears. His head dropped to his chest. “It’s so tragic!” he cried, wiping away tears. His heart felt as if it were breaking.

Solution: Trust your reader! And keep it simple! If you explain something once, the vast majority of your readers will understand and remember it.

Under Explaining

This happens when you’re too close to your own story. Everything feels so obvious and clear to you (as the author) and as a result you are leaving readers scratching their heads wondering what the heck is going on.

Charles opened the fridge and inside there was a GooblyOobly. It pulled out its wattyboo and cast a Famblaster spell that cracked Charles’ hobmufster in two.

Solution: Step away from your work! Get some distance (a few days to a few weeks), then come back to it with fresh eyes. Try to read it like you’ve never seen it before. If this doesn’t work, have someone else read it for you and mark where they get confused or feel lost.

Chapters with the Same Purpose

Each chapter or section should serve a unique and necessary purpose in your novel. In a lot of first drafts, there will be multiple chapters that share a function.

Perhaps you want to show that Lexi is scared of water, so you write a scene where she has to take a sponge bath instead of bathe in the tub.  Then you write a scene where everyone else is going swimming and she can’t go.  Then you write a scene where she has a panic attack when a glass of water is spilled on her.  Okay, we get it!  She’s afraid of water!

Solution: There is nothing wrong with including all of these scenes in your book so long as there is another purpose to each of the scenes.  You can only have one scene with the exclusive purpose of demonstrating her fear.  After that, there must be a different conflict, a different purpose, or else the scene should be scrapped. For more help: How to Spot a Bad Scene or Chapter.

Chapters with No Purpose

This is the dreaded filler!  If your characters are eating, smoking, staring out a window, or thinking of the past, you have most likely written a chapter or section with no purpose.  Each chapter/section must have a conflict and a resolution.  If there is neither, it’s just filler.

I have found that NaNoWriMo novels in particular have a lot of filler because writers are racing to meet the word count.  Filler can also happen when a writer isn’t sure where they want to go with the book so they ramble for a few chapters before getting back on course.

Solution: If a scene has no conflict or resolution, cut it out.  Don’t whine and moan and cry about it.  Just cut it out and move on.  You’ll never miss filler scenes when you get down to the finished product.

Got a problem that isn’t addressed here?  Have a writing or editing question?  Leave a comment or check out the Help Desk.

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How to Punctuate Dialogue: The Ultimate Guide


The vast majority of writers make errors when punctuating the dialog in their novels.  Many writers who make these errors think they have a firm grasp on dialog punctuation.

Though it probably won’t get you rejected by an agent or editor, incorrect punctuation can put them in a very nasty mood (the last thing you want when they’re handling your precious novel).


Commas are always used with dialog tags, whether they come before or after the dialog.  For example:

“Look at the dog,” he said. [RIGHT]

He said, “Look at the dog.” [RIGHT]

“Look at the dog.” He said.  [WRONG]

He said. “Look at the dog.” [WRONG]

If an exclamation point or question mark is used and the dialog tag comes after the dialog, then there should be no comma and the dialog tag should not be capitalized.  For example:

“Did you see the dog?” he asked. [RIGHT]

“Did you see the dog?” He asked. [WRONG]

Dialog Tags

Writers are often confused about what qualifies as a dialog tag.  A dialog tag is only something that references the way the words came out of the character’s mouth.  Any gestures, expressions, movements, etc. should be set apart from the dialog with a period, not connected with a comma.  For example:

8392210897_586b9ec905“Look at the dog,” he exclaimed. [RIGHT]

“Look at the dog,” he smirked. [WRONG]

“Look at the dog,” he pointed. [WRONG]

He jumped up and down, “Look at the dog.” [WRONG]

And despite what many writers seem to think, you cannot laugh or sigh dialog.

“Oh, bother,” she sighed. [WRONG]

“Oh, bother,” she said, sighing. [RIGHT]

“Look at that cute puppy,” she laughed. [WRONG]

“Look at that cute puppy.” She laughed. [RIGHT]

If the dialog tag is in the middle of a character speaking, then the dialog is not capitalized after the tag unless it starts a new sentence.  For example:

“I was thinking,” she said, “that maybe you could teach me.” [RIGHT]

“I was thinking,” she said, “That maybe you could teach me.” [WRONG]

“I love that dog,” she said. “He’s so cute.” [RIGHT]

“I love that dog,” she said, “he’s so cute.” [WRONG]

Interrupted Dialog

If the dialog is interrupted by another character speaking, use an em dash.  For example:

“It’s not fai-”

“Shut up!” he said. [RIGHT]

It’s not fai . . .”

“Shut up!” he said. [WRONG]



Trailing Dialog

If a character trails off, an ellipsis should be used.  Despite what many people think, an ellipsis is only three periods. For example:

“I just thought maybe . . .” [RIGHT]

“I just thought maybe…………” [WRONG]

Multiple Paragraphs of Dialog

If your dialog needs to run multiple paragraphs without dialog tags breaking it up, then each paragraph that is not the last paragraph should have no quotation mark at the end of it.  For example:

“My dear, sweet Love.  I love you so much that I can barely take it. You are the sun and the moon and the stars to me and you always will be.

“Unless, of course, you betray me, then I will cut off your head and put it on a stake,” he said. [RIGHT]


How to Get People to Take Your Self-Published Novel Seriously

6752495881_13a7149697Getting people to take their work seriously is a challenge for all self-published authors.

When readers have to sieve through hundreds, even thousands, of poorly written self-published books, it can be very difficult to stand out as one of the good ones.  But there are things you can do to get your self-published novel taken more seriously.

Excellent Cover Art

You can pout all you want that people shouldn’t judge a book by its cover, but they do.  Covert art is not an area to scrimp on money or time.

Invest in a great cover that adequately represents the genre and story.  Provide suggestions to whoever you hire to create your cover, but also respect their expertise.  Make sure the designer has a good track record and solid examples of covers in your genre.

Quality Editing

If you want a book to sell to more than just your close friends and family, then you absolutely must hire an editor.  Not a proofreader, but an editor, someone to find plot holes, character inconsistencies, point of view errors, etc.

There are lots of good and lots of not so good editors.  Make sure whoever you choose (*cough cough* pick me) has a proven track record, testimonials, and can provide a sample.  You want a developmental editor (also known as a content or substantive editor), NOT a copy editor (that comes later).

Competent Proofreading or Copy Editing

In the majority of cases, proofreading and copy editing are essentially the same thing so choosing either is fine.  This is just a check for spelling, grammar, punctuation, and correct word usage.  Readers will tolerate a handful of errors across an entire book, but if there are typos on the first page, they’re unlikely to read past Amazon’s free preview.

These are not real reviewers.

These are not real reviewers.

Real Reviews

This is absolutely vital: NEVER EVER have friends or family members write reviews for your book.  NEVER EVER pay for a book review.  Readers are smart.  They’re savvy.  They can absolutely tell when the reviews on your book are not authentic.

There are hundreds of blogs that will review self-published books.  You can also give your book away for free for a period of time in order to (hopefully) get a flood of reviews.  There are lots of tactics to use, but stuffing your Amazon or Goodreads page with fake reviews (I consider friend and relative reviews to be “fake” too) is not one of them!

6188273990_fed79f91faProfessional Presentation

Nobody is going to take your book seriously if the presentation is not professional.  Check over your book blurb/synopsis as well as your author bio and make sure they read as professional and error free.  Read through some traditionally-published book blurbs and author bios to get an idea of what to include.

Posting a professional looking author photo is also an absolute must.  If your Amazon author page has a pic of you on the sofa in your basement, readers will not take you seriously.


Readers have plenty of reasons not to take self-published books seriously.  Some of it is based in stigma and some of it is based in fact.  The bottom line is that readers will only take you as seriously as you take yourself. If you’re willing to invest in your book, readers will be willing to as well.

Crappy cover art, poor editing, typos, fake reviews, and an unprofessional presentation show readers that you don’t think your book is worth investing time and money into.  If it’s not worth it to you, why would they want to invest time or money into your book?

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Three Words to Banish From Your Novel (or else)

2163816826_f6f7e8da16Showing instead of telling is a big obstacle for many writers.  Sometimes writers tell instead of show without even realizing it!  Here are three words that insidiously introduce telling into your writing.  Get rid of them (or else)!



He was obviously in a bad mood.

She obviously had a headache.

It was obvious that she didn’t want to be there.



He clearly thought she was full of crap.

She was clearly happy about the news.

It was clear she had better things to do.



He stepped back, indicating that he didn’t want to be that close to her.

She frowned, clearly indicating that she was still upset about their fight.

The man indicated that she should sit down.

Why They Suck

Anytime a writer uses a sentence like the ones above, I want to jump up and down screaming, “Cheater, cheater, cheater!”  All of these sentences are telling rather than showing.  They’re cheap, easy, zero-effort ways of making a point.

Sometimes these words are also used to stretch the point of view (POV).  If your POV character doesn’t have any way of knowing something, you can simply say that it’s clear, obvious, or indicated.  Cheaters!

Stretch yourself as a writer, find ways to show how characters think and feel.  Use expressions, body language, tone of voice.  And sometimes just let your readers breathe!  Give them a chance to draw their own conclusions.  They’re smarter than you think!

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How Long Should a Novel be?

2774876344_07115d9e4aIs your novel too long?

Is your novel too short?

I often find myself editing clients’ manuscripts that are far too long and (occasionally) far too short. Whenever I approach a writer about changing the length of their novel, they frequently attempt to “prove” that the word count is acceptable by throwing around famous novels:

“Well, The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe is only 36,363 words!”

“Everybody loves Harry Potter, and The Order of the Phoenix is over 250,000 words!”

But the problem with these arguments is that they don’t prove anything. There are exceptions to every rule and there always will be, but that doesn’t make knowingly breaking the rules a good strategy for those seeking publication.

So What’s the Ideal Length of a Novel?

That depends on several factors, including where you publish and the genre.


The Low End: Many agents and publishers will automatically reject novels that are shorter than 60-70,000 words (Sorry NaNoWriMo writers). Exactly where they draw that bottom line depends on the individual. If you keep it above 65k, you probably won’t be rejected on word count alone.

The High End: Somewhere around 100-120k is the cut-off length for most agents and publishers. Anything above 100k puts you in the high-risk zone for rejection, so make sure your query is top notch.

Ideal Length: I’ve heard from several agents and publishers that 80k is their favorite length.

Romance/Erotic Fiction

The Low End: If you’re going with traditional publication, anything under 50k is probably too short (65k for historical). If you’re self-publishing or e-publishing, you will find there is a market for stories as short as 3,000 words.

The High End: Typically, anything over 70k is too long for a romance. Historical romances and genre-bending romances (scifi, fantasy, etc.) can push as high as 95,000 with some publishers.


The Low End: Generally, anything less than 80k is too short, but there may be exceptions for “light” SciFi/Fantasy, books that could be marketed as mainstream.

The High End: SciFi/Fantasy can easily get way up there in word count! First-time novelists (note: self-publishing still makes you a first-time novelist to the traditional publishing world) should try to keep it under 120k, but certainly lower than 150k. Publishers specializing in SciFi/Fantasy are more comfortable with high word counts than those that are simply open to publishing it.


The Low End: Cozy mysteries may be as short as 55-60k. Thrillers should push a little higher: 65-70k on the low end.

The High End: Cozy mysteries are usually no longer than 75-80k. Non-cozy mysteries and Thrillers can get as long as 100-110k.

There’s nothing wrong with deviating from the length recommendations.  Some writers will successfully publish an unusually long or short first novel.  But you can almost definitely increase your odds of publication by staying in a word count range that publishers are comfortable with.

Need help cutting down or beefing up your word count?  Watch my video on how to shorten your novel or check out my editing services.

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Writers, Are You Treating Your Readers Like They’re Stupid?

3029426027_b758fb28fdAre you treating your readers like they’re stupid?

It happens all the time! But many writers don’t even know they’re doing it. It just happens so easily, sneaking into your writing, polluting your beautiful prose.

The little worm I’m referring to is handholding. Avoid at all costs!

What is Handholding?

Handholding is when writers pull their readers through their story with a strong grip. It’s when, instead of letting readers breathe in the world of their story, they drag them through it, pointing out every important pebble and shouting, “There, there, you see it! Right there! Let me explain it to you so you definitely won’t miss it!”

Let’s look at some examples:

In Descriptions

The cliff leaned inwards like a jagged tooth, its rocky border as sharp as a knife. It felt imposing.

What? Imposing? Sounds lovely to me!

Avoid overly and blatantly describing important details. Write your descriptions in a purposeful way and your readers will have no trouble catching your meaning.

There was an imposing cliff in the distance.

Never do this! Give your readers some wiggle room, demanding they think and feel a certain way ruins the experience of reading your work. Not to mention that descriptions of this nature are a snooze-fest.

Instead, find ways to show that the cliff is imposing without blatantly saying so.

In Dialog Tags

“I hate you more than anything in the world!” he screamed, angrily.

Unless your character has serious psychological issues, it’s going to be pretty damn obvious that he’s angry, even without the “screamed,” even without the “angrily,” and (shockingly) even without the exclamation point.

“Owe,” he said in pain.

Because people usually say “owe” just for fun?

“I love you,” he said, lovingly.

Okay, this last one’s kind of a joke, but seriously: your readers are not stupid. They can understand your characters’ emotions without blatant cues, and if they can’t, you need to learn how to write more evocative descriptions.

In Character’s Emotions

Jasper gasped, shocked.

Don’t you think your readers know what a gasp is? Of course they do! So cut out “shocked” and keep it simple.

Big, sorrowful tears ran down Emily’s depressed face.

Emily’s depressed? Her tears are sorrowful? I would never have guessed!

When in doubt, keep it simple. Let your audience breathe, don’t drag them through your novel with brutal force. The best novels are those that require the audience to participate and interpret.

Still need help? I’m a professional editor with affordable prices and I don’t bite….promise.  Check out my services.

What (Not) to Say When People Ask Why You Self Published

6753518501_1ea26e8e87There are lots of reasons to self publish a book.  Some of them sound better than others.  So it’s a good idea to premeditate your response to the question: “Why did you self publish?”  Because, rude or not, people will ask  and they will judge your answer.

What Not to Say

“I tried to get an agent (or editor) but everyone rejected my book.”

Even if this is true, it makes you sound lame.  No one wants to read a book that no one wanted to publish.  If you attempted to go through traditional channels, just keep that to yourself and pretend like self publishing is what you wanted all along.

“The publishing industry wouldn’t know a good book if it smacked them in the head.”

Whether or not this statement is true isn’t the point.  It makes you look arrogant and delusional.  It also makes you sound like a sore loser.

“I don’t want to give royalties to an agent or publisher.”

This just makes you sound money grubbing.  People want to support artists who love their art, not ones out to make a quick buck.

“I don’t need an agent, editor, cover artist, [fill in the blank].”

Again, even if this is true, it just makes you sound arrogant.  Everybody needs help of some kind to make their book a reality.

“I can sell more and get rich on my own.”

The odds of this happening are infinitesimally small. Around 50% of self-published authors (including those with multiple books released) make less than $500 in royalties per year.  So this statement makes you look both delusional and arrogant.

4598279025_8921d3dcf2So What Should You Say?

Whatever you say, keep it humble and sincere.  Focus on your passion for what you do.  Try to get people excited that you’re following your dreams.

Here are some examples:

“Publishing is something that I’ve always wanted to do so I’m making my dream come true.”

“I just want to tell my stories.  For me, it’s not about all the bells and whistles of traditional publication.”

“I love writing and I wanted to share my passion with the world.”

Whatever you say, just remember to avoid sounding critical or judgmental towards traditional publishing.  It won’t prove any points you have about the industry, but it will make you look petty and arrogant.

Need help with your self-published book?  Or need help landing an agent or publisher?  I’m a professional developmental editor for both self publishing and traditionally publishing authors. Check out my editing services.

How to Write and Edit a Novel: The Ultimate Guide


Have you always wanted to know how to write a novel?  Well apparently, 81% of Americans believe they have a book in them!  But how do you write one?  More specifically, how do you write a good one? Here’s my ultimate guide on how to write a novel.

The Writeditor’s Ultimate Guide on How to Write a Novel

Step #1: Create a Plot

First, make sure what you have is actually a plot and not a premise.  A premise is the concept behind a book (aliens have taken over the world).  A plot is the conflict or obstacle the characters must face (John must stop the aliens from assassinating the president).

A plot must also have a risk. If the character fails, something bad will happen (the aliens will become president and control the human race).

2584174182_ffd5c24905Step #2: Create Characters

Your characters should have strong personalities and identifiable differences between them. If everyone talks and acts the same, you’re in trouble.

Furthermore, characters must have something they want, a desire.  The climax for the character is either achieving that desire or failing.

Watch this video and learn eight steps to writing unique characters.

Step #3: Choose a Point of View

This is where a lot of would-be authors fail right off the bat.  You need to not only understand the differences between the types of point of view, but you also need to make a conscious decision to choose one!

If you can’t name which point of view you’re using for your novel, you’re in serious trouble.

Step #3: Write the First Draft

Sit down and don’t worry about your inner editor, just bang out the first draft.  Try to include all of the elements and plot points you want in the final novel.  Don’t worry too much about voice, consistency, or cohesion, you can fix that later.

If you like outlines, create one before this step. Outlining or not outlining is a matter of preference.

7447732100_1dd60a9c6eStep #4: The First Edit

The first edit should focus on the big picture: which chapters/scenes should stay and which ones should be cut (learn how to spot bad chapters here).  Each chapter/scene should have a conflict and should push the story forward.  If it’s not doing either of those things, it needs to be cut.

You may find it helpful to use flashcards (physical or digital) to map out each chapter or scene.  Reorder them as necessary for clarity and to increase tension.

Step #5: The Second Edit

Now you should take a step closer to your novel and look for inconsistencies and issues with cohesion.  Is your character blonde in one chapter, then brunette in the next?  Does a character’s quirk disappear in chapter eight?

And here’s a big one: are you breaking your own rules?  This is particularly relevant in SciFi and Fantasy.  If you created a rule for your world (only wizards can use wands), then in chapter fifteen you break that rule (a squirrel uses a wand to create an endless supply of acorns), you need to fix that.

Step #6: The Third Edit

This is where you need to put each sentence under a magnifying glass. Ask yourself: does this sentence sound good?  Could it be worded clearer or more smoothly? Is this the best way to get this concept across? Is it in the character’s voice?  Is it needed? Is it repetitive?

3925743489_60e27e04f2Step #7: Get a Second (or third, or fourth) Opinion

Now that your book is the best you can make it, you need to get the opinion of another person.  Depending on many factors, this could be a writing group, one or more beta readers, or a freelance editor.

Your mom, brother, husband, friend, child’s opinion does not matter.  They are too close to you to tell you the truth.  They also don’t know what the heck they’re talking about (some beta readers might not either, so be careful with who you choose).

Step #8: Final Edit (maybe)

Take the notes and comments given to you by your beta readers or freelance editor and integrate them into your novel.  But don’t forget that this is your baby.  If you don’t want to make a certain change (because you don’t believe in it, not because you’re lazy), then don’t change it.

And Finally (you’re going to hate this) 

4835746606_04946f813bJust because you followed all of the steps above, that doesn’t mean your novel is publishable.

Some people have a natural writing style that is relatively error free. They don’t even know what the writing mistakes are, but somehow they just naturally avoid them (feel free to pout about this, it’s totally unfair).  And there are other writers who will make nearly every writing mistake in the book no matter how many times they revise.

What to Do

The best way to improve your writing at this point, is to learn what mistakes you are making. This can be done by going to writing classes, getting more beta readers, stalking writing forums, reading writing advice articles and videos, etc.

But in my totally biased opinion, the best way to learn your mistakes is to work with a freelance editor who will painstakingly explain every teeny-tiny thing you’ve done wrong.  Yes, it’s an investment, but I guarantee that it is the fastest and easiest way to improve your writing (my wonderful clients have told me so).

If you’d like to hire me as your freelance editor, check out my editing services.

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Why Dreams Make Great Writing Prompts

3122868843_fd587bf305Every writer experiences writer’s block.  But there’s an easy, all-natural solution!  Use your dreams as inspiration.  If you have trouble remembering your dreams, start a dream journal and write down anything you can remember, no matter how small.  Over time your brain will learn to remember your dreams (this really works).

Here’s how using your dreams as writing prompts can benefit your writing:

Uninhibited Ideas

When you’re asleep, your mind is relaxed. Ideas flow freely without worrying about your inner editor.  Your imagination takes you to unbelievable places and crafts plots so unique and bizarre that you’d never come up with them in your waking life.

Drawing Connections

Dreams can be chaotic. They can jump around, blend genres, and take you on an emotional roller coaster ride.  Taking the disjointed elements of a dream and drawing a strong, solid connection between them (to create a cohesive narrative) can really put your writing chops to the test.


Great novels have subtle symbolism that affects the reader in ways they may not even realize.  Most people’s dreams naturally contain interesting and complex symbolism that can give your story that extra special something. Check out Dream Moods if you want to learn more about dream symbols.

When using a dream as a writing prompt, don’t feel obligated to stick exactly to what happened. Expand the dream, change it where needed, use it as a jumping off point for your creativity.  The best part about using dreams as writing prompts?  You can manufacture a new one every night!

Need more writing tips? Follow me here or on Twitter.

Need a freelance editor? Check out my editing services.

Writing in Present Tense Might be a Bad Idea


First, just let me say that I do not hate the present tense.  In fact, I have a present tense story being published in an anthology later this year.  The problem with present tense is that it’s great when it’s great, and when it’s not….*shudder* it’s horrible!

Present tense novels are an editor’s nightmare because no matter how much you think you understand present tense, you don’t.  You really don’t.  Every single present tense novel I’ve ever edited has had hundreds of mistakes in the tense.  If you’re an unpublished, unknown writer, having hundreds of errors makes it a pretty short trip to the rejection pile.  And that’s if the agent/editor likes present tense.

There are many agents and editors who have a written or unwritten policy to never or rarely accept fiction in the present tense (this seems especially common in adult science fiction and fantasy).  Aside from maybe second person, it’s one of the most widely hated narrative styles.  This doesn’t mean that present tense fiction is never published.  It is.  Though in adult fiction it is greatly outnumbered by stories in past tense.

If you want to take a risk and go with present tense, it is not a guaranteed failure. But is writing a present tense novel a good way to launch a writing career?  Probably not.  Does it lower your odds of publication?  Almost definitely.

However, for young adult and middle grade readers, present tense is far more common and acceptable. It’s possible that writing in present tense may even be advantageous in these genres (for stats on present vs. past tense in middle grade, click here).

Still going with present tense?  I cannot stress enough the importance of getting it in the hands of a competent editor before self publishing or submitting to agents/editors.  You’ve gotta get rid of the errors in tense!

Present tense is one of my specialties, so if you’d like my help, check out my novel editing services.

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