The vast majority of writers make errors when punctuating the dialog in their novels. Many writers who make these errors think they have a firm grasp on dialog punctuation.
Though it probably won’t get you rejected by an agent or editor, incorrect punctuation can put them in a very nasty mood (the last thing you want when they’re handling your precious novel).
Commas are always used with dialog tags, whether they come before or after the dialog. For example:
“Look at the dog,” he said. [RIGHT]
He said, “Look at the dog.” [RIGHT]
“Look at the dog.” He said. [WRONG]
He said. “Look at the dog.” [WRONG]
If an exclamation point or question mark is used and the dialog tag comes after the dialog, then there should be no comma and the dialog tag should not be capitalized. For example:
“Did you see the dog?” he asked. [RIGHT]
“Did you see the dog?” He asked. [WRONG]
Writers are often confused about what qualifies as a dialog tag. A dialog tag is only something that references the way the words came out of the character’s mouth. Any gestures, expressions, movements, etc. should be set apart from the dialog with a period, not connected with a comma. For example:
“Look at the dog,” he smirked. [WRONG]
“Look at the dog,” he pointed. [WRONG]
He jumped up and down, “Look at the dog.” [WRONG]
And despite what many writers seem to think, you cannot laugh or sigh dialog.
“Oh, bother,” she sighed. [WRONG]
“Oh, bother,” she said, sighing. [RIGHT]
“Look at that cute puppy,” she laughed. [WRONG]
“Look at that cute puppy.” She laughed. [RIGHT]
If the dialog tag is in the middle of a character speaking, then the dialog is not capitalized after the tag unless it starts a new sentence. For example:
“I was thinking,” she said, “that maybe you could teach me.” [RIGHT]
“I was thinking,” she said, “That maybe you could teach me.” [WRONG]
“I love that dog,” she said. “He’s so cute.” [RIGHT]
“I love that dog,” she said, “he’s so cute.” [WRONG]
If the dialog is interrupted by another character speaking, use an em dash. For example:
“It’s not fai-”
“Shut up!” he said. [RIGHT]
“It’s not fai . . .”
“Shut up!” he said. [WRONG]
If the dialog is interrupted by an action, use the em dash outside the quotation marks on either side of the action (unless there is a dialog tag). For example:
“Can I ask you” -she lifted her head- “to stay here for a while?” [RIGHT]
“Can I ask you,” she lifted her head, “to stay here for a while?” [WRONG]
“Can I ask you,” she said, lifting her head, “to stay here for a while?” [RIGHT]
If a character trails off, an ellipsis should be used. Despite what many people think, an ellipsis is only three periods. For example:
“I just thought maybe . . .” [RIGHT]
“I just thought maybe…………” [WRONG]
Multiple Paragraphs of Dialog
If your dialog needs to run multiple paragraphs without dialog tags breaking it up, then each paragraph that is not the last paragraph should have no quotation mark at the end of it. For example:
“My dear, sweet Love. I love you so much that I can barely take it. You are the sun and the moon and the stars to me and you always will be.
“Unless, of course, you betray me, then I will cut off your head and put it on a stake,” he said. [RIGHT]
If any of these correct punctuations look weird to you, it’s only because you’ve seen it done wrong so many times that it has started to look right!
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